Microevolution versus Macroevolution: Two Mistakes

first_img A Physician Describes How Behe Changed His MindLife’s Origin — A “Mystery” Made AccessibleCodes Are Not Products of PhysicsIxnay on the Ambriancay PlosionexhayDesign Triangulation: My Thanksgiving Gift to All Both statistical significance and functional information are defined in the literature. We also have a method to measure evolutionary change in terms of functional information, so we are ready to move on, avoiding the two mistakes discussed above. Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share TagsScienceViews,Trending Requesting a (Partial) Retraction from Darrel Falk and BioLogos Intelligent Design Microevolution versus Macroevolution: Two MistakesKirk DurstonJuly 16, 2015, 12:30 PM Microevolution (variation) takes place through genetic drift, natural selection, mutations, insertions/deletions, gene transfer, and chromosomal crossover, all of which produce countless observed variations in plant or animal populations throughout history. Examples include variations of the peppered moth, Galápagos finch beaks, new strains of flu viruses, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and variations in stickleback armour. Each year, thousands of papers are published dealing with examples of microevolution/variation. Cross-posted at SQyBLu/Contemplations. I often observe that in discussions of evolution, both evolution skeptics and those who embrace neo-Darwinian evolution are prone to make one of two significant mistakes. Both stem from a failure to distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution. So in order to clearly distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution in a rigorous scientific way, let me propose the following definitions: Microevolution: genetic variation that requires no statistically significant increase in functional information. Macroevolution: genetic change that requires a statistically significant increase in functional information. The mistake I often hear evolution skeptics make is to the effect that “evolution” is all rubbish, bunk, and false. They are often astonished to learn that variation (which they completely agree with) is defined as “evolution.” The solution is for evolution skeptics to be more precise on exactly what they have problems with. They can endorse microevolution (variation) but point out that a) it is misleading to call variation “evolution” and, b) their problems are with macroevolution. “A Summary of the Evidence for Intelligent Design”: The Study Guide Origin of Life: Brian Miller Distills a Debate Between Dave Farina and James Tour The textbook for a genetics course I took at the University of Waterloo defined evolution as “changes in allele frequencies in a population over time.” An allele can be described as a variation of a particular gene. Defining evolution in this way can be misleading; it would be more accurate to call this variation. No new genes are required, just variation in existing genes or the loss of existing genetic information. This sort of variation is typically referred to as microevolution. Recommended Congratulations to Science Magazine for an Honest Portrayal of Darwin’s Descent of Man Evolution The definition of macroevolution is surprisingly non-precise for a scientific discipline. Macroevolution can be defined as evolution above the species level, or evolution on a “grand scale,” or microevolution + 3.8 billion years. It has never been observed, but a theoretical example is the evolution from a chordate eel-like creature to a human being. Many people who embrace Darwinian evolution confidently state that evolution is a proven fact. They say this on the basis of thousands of papers discussing microevolution. Herein lies the second mistake … the assumption that because variation/microevolution is such an overwhelmingly proven fact that, therefore, macroevolution must be as well. Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share Jane Goodall Meets the God Hypothesis Macroevolution is very different from microevolution. The reason there are so many countless observations of variation/microevolution is that it requires no statistically significant levels of novel genetic information; it is trivially easy to achieve. The reason that macroevolution has never been observed is that it requires statistically significant levels of novel genetic information. It is extremely difficult to achieve, but Darwinian theory predicts that genetic information can significantly increase over time. Falsifiable predictions can be made and these are worth examining. Kirk Durston Sharelast_img read more

UK: MCS Takes Delivery of Three Damen FCS 2610s, Two More on the Way

first_imgMaritime Craft Services (Clyde) Ltd. took delivery of three more Twin Axe wind farm support vessels in June and two more will arrive next month. With the introduction of the five new Damen Twin Axe Fast Crew Suppliers, MCS has the largest Twin Axe fleet in the offshore wind industry.The addition of the latest three Damen Twin Axe Fast Crew Supplier 2610s follows the successful introduction of two vessels of the same type in 2012, the MCS Sirocco and MCS Pampero.MCS Managing Director Dirk Kuijt says: “It is good business practice to have a mix of different type of CTV’s, but as yet we have not found a more reliable, safe and comfortable Crew Transfer Vessel as the Twin Axe to contemplate this mix.”First jobsThe three new vessels are named MCS Kaver, MCS Blue Norther and MCS Levanto and will be deployed in the Shetland Islands, Germany and Denmark in offshore wind farm support and maintenance activities.MCS has also ordered two more Twin Axe Fast Crew Suppliers, which will be delivered end-July. These will be named MCS Coromell and MCS Boreas.Based in Largs, Ayrshire (UK), MCS has more than 30 years experience, the Scottish family firm operates a 19-strong fleet of tugs and workboats internationally and has several Damen vessels including Multi Cats, Shoalbusters and Dredge Helpers. MCS has been active in the offshore wind market for many years and decided to enter the crew transfer market in 2011.[mappress]Press release, July 11, 2013; Image: MCSlast_img read more

Hush money

first_imgSubscribe now for unlimited access Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our communitylast_img read more

Final shipment for Hising bridge project

first_imgThe span, manufactured by Tecade in Spain, measured 44 m long and 39 m wide. It was loaded on UHL Future and guided out of Seville’s Puerta de Mar lock ahead of its seven-day journey to Gothenburg.The span will be positioned on top of pylons and counterweights that were delivered and installed last month, as HLPFI reported here.tschudilogistics.comwww.unitedheavylift.dewww.portal.apsevilla.comlast_img

Nigerian man kills 5-day-old son over lack of money for naming…

first_imgA man in Bauchi State in northern Nigeria has been arrested by police for allegedly killing his five-day-old son with insecticide because he had no money to organize a naming ceremony for the child, local media reports.The man, Habibu Bala of Ningi Local Government area of the state was paraded alongside other suspected criminals by the police and confessed to committing the murderous act, because of lack of money to organize a naming ceremony.“I killed my new baby because I don’t have money to organize naming ceremony but I regretted killing him”, he confessed.“On 21st January, 2018 the suspect’s brother one Musa Bala reported at the Ningi police station that on the same date at about 2:30pm his younger brother used an insecticide known as “piya piya” and poisoned his son by administering the chemical into the baby’s mouth,” said Kamal Datti Abubakar, a Deputy Superintendent of Police and spokesman for the state command.“As a result the baby became unconscious; he was later taken to Ningi General Hospital where the medical doctor certified him dead,”Abubakar added.In another related incident, a 17-year-old boy was also arrested for allegedly killing his 65-year-old father.Nuhu Bulus of Toro Local Government Area of the same state is said to have inflicted serious injuries on his father after he was left alone with 65-year-old Bulus Azi on January 17.Abubakar revealed that the suspect hit his father several times with metal pots and woods, which led to his death after being rushed to hospital.Nuhu revealed during an interview with The Independent that he murdered his father due to a misunderstanding that ensued between them, adding that he was intoxicated with hard drugs when he committed the offence.“I killed my father because he provoked me with his strange behavior which led to a misunderstanding between us,” he said.last_img read more

Man Arrested And Woman Rushed To Hospital In Glasgow With Serious Injuries After Incident…

first_imgAddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInPolice Scotland can confirm that a 25 year old man is in custody following an incident at a house in Main Street, Glenluce on the evening of Tuesday 13 November 2018. A 25 year old female has been taken to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital with what are described as numerous serious injuries following this incident.Inspector Stewart McColm at Stranraer said “this was quite a contained incident and as such there was no risk to the wider public in the community. Enquiries are ongoing in the village and officers will be on patrol to reassure the public in relation to any concerns they might have.”last_img read more

Top 10 English clubs ranked by major domestic and European trophies won

first_img 10 10 5. Aston Villa – 20 major domestic and European trophies won – Seven league titles, seven FA Cups, five League Cups, one European Cup The Premier League fixture list release was a reminder that, even with the European Championship in full swing, it won’t be long until club competition is back.The 2016-17 campaign promises to throw up some fascinating contests, as the biggest English clubs get ready for the new season.How will highly rated coaches Pep Guardiola, Jose Mourinho and Antonio Conte fare in their high profile new jobs at Manchester City, Manchester United and Chelsea, respectively?Can Jurgen Klopp end Liverpool’s trophy drought? Will Arsene Wenger finally reclaim the title? Or will Leicester stun everyone for a second time?What about Tottenham? Can they build on a promising season last time round? Will Ronald Koeman resurrect Everton’s fortunes?We will find out all of this and much more.But what we do know going into the new season, is exactly what has gone before.In this case, we’re talking about which English clubs have won the most trophies.We’ve included only major domestic and European trophies, that is, no Community Shields, UEFA Super Cups or Intercontinental/FIFA Club World Cups.Check out the slideshow above to see which clubs make up the top 10. 7. Everton – 15 major domestic and European trophies won – Nine league titles, five FA Cups, one European Cup Winner’s Cup 3. Arsenal – 29 major domestic and European trophies won – 13 league titles, 12 FA Cups, two League Cups, one European Cup Winners’ Cup, one Fairs Cup 10 10 1. Liverpool – 41 major domestic and European trophies won – 18 league titles, seven FA Cups, eight League Cups, five European Cups/Champions Leagues, three UEFA Cups 10 4. Chelsea – 21 major domestic and European trophies won – Five league titles, seven FA Cups, five League Cups, one Champions League, one Europa League, two European Cup Winners’ Cups 8. Manchester City – 14 major domestic and European trophies won – Four league titles, five FA Cups, four League Cups, one European Cup Winner’s Cup 10 10 10 10 6. Tottenham Hotspur – 17 major domestic and European trophies won – Two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, two UEFA Cups, one European Cup Winner’s Cup 2. Manchester United – 40 major domestic and European trophies won – 20 league titles, 12 FA Cups, four League Cups, three European Cups/Champions Leagues, one European Cup Winners’ Cup 9. Newcastle United – 11 major domestic and European trophies won – Four league titles, six FA Cups and one Fairs Cup (forerunner of the UEFA Cup/Europa League) 10 10. Blackburn Rovers – 10 major domestic trophies won (click the arrow above, right, to see which clubs make up the top 10) – Three league titles, six FA Cups and one League Cup last_img read more

Point-Rapids blanks Marshfield girls hockey

first_imgBy Paul LeckerSports ReporterMARSHFIELD — Bryar Brooks scored early in the second period, and that proved to be the only goal of the game as Stevens Point-Wisconsin Rapids shut out Marshfield 1-0 in a nonconference girls hockey game Monday at the Marshfield Ice Arena.Brooks scored off an assist from Zoe Derks 4:47 into the second period to provide the game’s only score.Alexis Straughan had 22 saves in goal for Marshfield (4-8).Emily Bubla had 18 saves for Point-Rapids (3-8-2).Marshfield is off until next Monday when it plays a Great Northern Conference game at Northland Pines.(Hub City Times Sports Reporter Paul Lecker is also the publisher of MarshfieldAreaSports.com.)Red Panthers 1, Tigers 0Point-Rapids 0 1 0 – 1Marshfield 0 0 0 – 0Second period: 1. PR, Bryar Brooks (Zoe Derks), 12:13.Saves: PR, Emily Bubla 18; M, Alexis Straughan 22.Records: Point-Rapids 3-8-2; Marshfield 4-8.last_img read more

Photo library: Business and industry 4

first_img{loadposition tc}Click on a thumbnail for a low-resolution image, or right-click on the link below it to download a high-resolution copy of the image.» Download Business & Industry contact sheet (1.8MB) » Download full image library contact sheet (10.5MB) Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Robertson Hlatshwyo works in the labelling plant at South African Breweries’ Alrode brewery. Producing 1.9-million litres of beer a day and employing some 900 staff, the brewery is the largest in the country. Photo: Chris KirchhoffMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Robertson Hlatshwyo works in the labelling plant at South African Breweries’ Alrode brewery. Producing 1.9-million litres of beer a day and employing some 900 staff, the brewery is the largest in the country. Photo: Chris KirchhoffMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: South African Breweries’ Alrode brewery. The largest in South Africa, it produces 1.9-million litres of beer a day and employs 900 staff.Photo: Chris KirchhoffMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Scrap metal in transit in Alrode. Photo: Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Scrap metal works in Alrode.Photo: Chris KirchhoffMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Maize cobs – known locally as mealies – for sale in the city centre. Photo: Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Traders in the city centre. Photo: Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Shop sign in Kliptown, Soweto. Photo: Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Trainee diamond polisher Zubair Kassim inspects a diamond at the Harry Oppenheimer Diamond training school. Courses run from two weeks to eight months and include diamond polishing, polished diamond grading, gem identification and diamond evaluation. Photo: Chris Kirchhoff,MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY 4: {loadposition business}Having trouble downloading high-resolution images? Queries about using the image library? Email Mary Alexander at [email protected]last_img read more

Study: 93 Percent of Americans Want Companies to Have Presence on Social Media Sites

first_imgRelated Posts 60% of Americans regularly interact with companies on a social media site43% of consumers say that companies should use social networks to solve the consumers’ problems41% believe that companies should use social media tools to solicit feedback on products and servicesMen are more likely to use social media tools to interact with a company than women (33% vs. 17%)33% of younger consumers (18-34) and those with household incomes over $75,000 believe that companies should try to market to them through social networksIt would be nice to see Cone break these numbers down a bit more. What types of social media sites, for example, do users prefer? Are there any specific categories of companies and brands that they want to see on these sites? How exactly do they want to be marketed to? What do they think about implications for their privacy?What is clear, however, is that social media is quickly becoming an important means for companies to reach consumers – and that consumer are also quickly changing their expectations about how, when, and where they want to be marketed to. As more users are embracing social media (and often to the detriment of traditional media), companies have no choice but to follow them. According to the 2008 Cone Business in Social Media Study, 93% of Americans believe that a company should have a presence on social media sites and 85 percent believe that these companies should use these services to interact with consumers. Cone, a Boston-based consulting firm, also found that men are far more likely to interact with a company through social media than women are. 56% of consumers believe that a company is providing them with a better service by interacting with them on social media sites.The numbers in this study are bit higher than those we have seen before (we assume that Cone uses a relatively broad definition of ‘social media’), though the general trends do fall in line with the latest data from Universal McCann we wrote about last week. As Michael Chin points out on the KickApps blog, social media first changed how we interacted with friends, family, and customers. Now, as consumers are getting more familiar with these tools, they also expect them to be a way to interact with companies – and based on this data from Cone, they want this to be a two-way conversation.Here are some other interesting data points from the study: A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Audit Facebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro… Tags:#news#social networks#Social Web#web Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verification The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videos frederic lardinoislast_img read more